Master of Business Administration (MBA) Examination.

III Semester

(Advertising and Brand Management)

Time : 3 Hours]                                                                                               [Max. Marks : 80

Section B

1.         Define advertising. Discuss its significance in the dynamic business environment. Comment on the social and economic effects with proper illustrations.

2.         What is the difference between brand image, or personality, brand comprehension and brand attitude ? Discuss with proper illustrations.

3.         Write notes on any two :

(a)        Agency-client Relationship.

(b)        Brand portfolio

(c)        Brand Positioning and Repositioning

(d)       Post-testing Techniques for Advertising Effectiveness.

4.         Define Brand Equity and explain the factors affecting Brand Equity.

What are the methods of measuring brand equity ?How Brand Awareness, Brand Image and Brand Personality are related to each other ? Explain with examples.

5.         Define Advertising Agency and explain different types of ad-agencies on the basis of functions performed by them. What factors should be considered for selection of an ad-agency and how can harmonious client-agency relationship be maintained ?

5.         Write short notes on : - (Any 3)

(a)        Media Scheduling

(b)        Brand Positioning

(c)        Copy Writing

(d)       Dagmar

(e)        Communication model

Section B

Analyse the following case and answer the questions given at the end :


In its generic form, honey is a wonder product. If in western homes it is a term of endearment, in India honey is traditionally seen as a health syrup. Through most of India's produce comes from the concerted hardwork of well-cordinated bees, in far flung villages, the market belongs largely to the unorganised sector.

No Company in the organised sector had seen business opportunity in honey, till the Rs. 425 crore Dabur India Limited decided to source honey in large volurnes from apiculturalists (bee-hive formers) and market it: the company introduced branded honey in glass jars to the Indian market about a decade ago. The only other big organisation selling honey at that time was Khadi Gramodyog, but it was merely distributing the unbranded produce from villages to the urban markets.

For the company, honey was not an out-of-the way product, considering that Dabur's product portfolio boasts of a wide array of traditional ayurvedic products which draw inspiration from Charak Samhita, a treatise on ancient medicine.

Available on shop shelves in urban India, Dabur Honey offered a consistent quality product to the housewife who all along had relied on the occasional visitor from her village to get some pure honey Naturally; it was a prized commodity, since it was produced in such tiny volume.

Dabur found that demand was' low.' Honey's usage was restriceted to the world of therapy; used as a cough palliative, a skin conditioner or alternately as a base ingredient for other ayurvedic formulations. In such a scenario, hard data market estimates were not available.

However, the company saw huge potential. It was reasonably assured that the equity of the product was deeply engraved in the housewife's mind. With no other company to contend with, Dabur had the whole field to itself.

Although, Dabur made a start of mass marketing of its honey, it made few efforts to push sales and expand the market in the initial stage. By flowing honey through its distribution stream, all the company had achieved was planing the product within the urban consumer's reach. She now expected to see honey at her grocer's shop, but had no new incentive to buy it.

Dabur simply leveraged the strength of its umbrella brand equity to sell the product. The brand's equity was built overtime through both the buyer's familiarity with the name, and its consistent delivery of quality

Though there was no competition, and Dabur sold virtually every jar of honey bought in retail outlets, the company could not ignore one strong buzz in its bonnet-that the product was not in a mature market, and that it still had a long way to go. In fact, good marketing could super volumes off take to swell enormously, felt Dabur. This throught forced the company to take more than just a casual interest in marketing honey.

By the late 1980s, small regional brands had started getting stronger, although they were confined to small pockets by their lack of a wide distribution mechanism. This posed a danger. Having to share the spoils of the existing low-volume market could mean having to forego the benefits of even the organic rate of growth (market expansion aside). Dabur Honey's sales went from slow to sluggish.

Other brands-Golden Meadows, Allied's and Mehson's among them-had started gaining recognition in the branded honey market. And some more were off their way in; some with fancy packaging to target the upmarket buyer. The smaller marketers were selling mainly on price, which meant trouble for Dabur since there is not enough product differentiation in this category. This was the time Dabur Honey decided to assert its superiority in the market, and ward off any threat to its growth.

In the year 1991, Dabur Honey took to national level advertising for the first time, placing the brand on the purity platform. The start of the media explosion gave the brand a wide choice of vehicles to use in its media mix. The objective was to target the consumer in towns with population of above one lakh if it could increase its penetration levels in these cities, felt Dabur, demand for the brand would trickle down to smaller townships and rural areas.

Grow;:h came, Still, at about 20 per cent a year, it was not entirely satisfactory considering that it was on a small base.

The honey that bees make is perhaps the world's purest form of natural sugar. Refining is the only mechanised process that apiary-drawn honey passes through, so it made sense at that time to take the purity plank. But this just gave the existing medicine-use consumer an assurance of quality. It did not either widen the consumer base or raise the per-family offtake of the product.

Meanwhile, big competition began eyeing what Dabur had seen-the enormous potential in the market if honey were to be sold as a tasty breakfast table food addictive. Transnational food marketers, Lipton and Nestle, both sell branded honey in markets abroad; and Dabur could not ignore the chance of their storming markets of urban India with their global honey labels.

In 1994, Dabur gave the brand's ad accounts to Enterprise. At that time, Dabur's ad spend for honey was a piffling Rs. 10-15 lakh a year.

A survey by the agency confirmed Dabur's hunch. It revealed that the consumption of Dabur Honey was an adjectly-low 26 gm. Per household annually. Focus group discussions pointed out the reason. Though, the housewife endows honey with positive and healthful attributes, she does not pull it out of its hiding place till it's needed to do the job of, say, curing a cough. Relative to other foods, honey is expensive, but this was a minor consideration for families with lage nourishment outlays. Its own goodness was standing in its way.

And Dabur's umbrella brand values-health through ayurveda-had reinforced the notion of honey as medicine. In fact. Dabur recommends honey as a base for several ayurvedicmixs. Also, Dabur Honey's brand Defsonality was dull aid traditional. The agency Worked on the hypothesis that while health) be the chief attribute by perception. the product's taste did own a place sonlqwhere in the back of the consumer's mind.

The ad spend was hiked to over Rs. 50 lakh for 1994-95. To make the brand more eciting and to involve the consume, the company even took to sponsoring recipe and food sections in various women's magazines.

Dabur brought out a 500 gm jar size, priced at Rs. 71, to add to the smaller ones-an indication of the volumes a household is expected to consume. The package label was changed to include copy on food values. Simultaneously, Dabur embarked on an elaborate merchandising drive, by grabbing retail shelf space for product display and by using POP's for added attention. Attractive incentive schemes were offered to the sales force, besides better terms to the wholesalers.

The drippy Feast

It is been just five months since Dabur Honey's relaunch; and the company claims that sales have already registered a growth of 65 per cent in volumes over last year's figure. The overall market is displaying a shift from smaller jars to the 500 gms one; consumption per home appears to be rising.

Today, the entire market for honey is estimated at 8,000 tonnes a year, dominated largely by unorganised players. The leading brand, Dabur commands a market share of over 10 per cent, while all other branded players together account for around 4 per cent of the pie. Dabur Honey is Rs. 12 crore brand today, that's double the value it was in 1993-94.

Questions for Discussion

1.         What should be the advertising and sales promotion strategies for a new competitive product entering the branded honey market ?

2.         Should the new competitor charge the same price as being charged by Dabur or should it be different ? Give reasons in support of your an¬swer.

3.         Suggest some new sales promotion techniques to Dabur to increase the rate of product trial by those consumers who have not use4 the product so far.